看板 English作者 ott (寶貝)
時間 2013年04月15日 Mon. PM 04:49:44
The stories behind the kitchen inventions we couldn't do without
What was involved in preparing your dinner last night? You probably have never stopped to think about it, but many processes and devices were involved before the food and drink appeared on your table. As a matter of fact, food preparation innovations throughout history have paved the way for safer, easier-to-make meals.
A focus on safety Pasteurization
One of the most important food discoveries occurred in the 1860s when French chemist Louis Pasteur found that by heating liquids, harmful bacteria could be destroyed. Before then, deadly bacteria in food and drinks to disease and death. Today food is much safer thanks to the process of pasteurization, named for this scientist.
In the old days people placed food in cold streams or under snow and ice to keep it from spoiling. The quest continued, though, for a better method to preserve and store food. Finally German engineer Carl von Linde developed a way to liquefy gas in large quantities, a process that is required for refrigeration. He patented his refrigeration design in 1877, and many consider von Linde the inventor of the modern-day refrigerator, something no kitchen should be without.
An emphasis on convenience:
The egg carton
Back in 1911, an argument in British Columbia, Canada, led to a useful invention. Eggs shipped by a local farmer to a hotel owner often arrived broken, and each blamed the other for the damage. To solve the problem, Canadian newspaperman Joseph Coyle designed a paper carton with small, hollowed out spaces that cushioned the eggs and kept them separated. Coyle's invention was so successful that we still use a variation of it today.
In 1810, London resident Peter Durand invented metal cans that would hold and preserve food for long periods of time. The only problem was that people had to use a hummer and chisel to open them. Amazingly it took another 50 years before the can opener was invented by Ezra Warner.
Many believe the knife is mankind's oldest tool, with the earliest forms made from flint or a glass-like rock and then from metal around 2500 BC Through the years, the cutting device evolved into the handy tool we place so much reliance on today. While we in the 21st century take these inventions for grand, our lives would be very different without these indispensable kitchen aids.
Grammar Gym :
"....something no kitchen should be without."
No + " subject" should be without. - something is absolutely necessary for a certain subject.
This is a dictionary no language- learners should be without .
This is a card no shopper should be without.
paved (pave v.) the way - make the way for something to happen.鋪平道路，意即“為某件事鋪路，或是預先作好安排。
*The TV singing contest paved the way to the singer's professional debut.
*The meeting successfully paved the way for the peace treaty .和平協議。
deadly - very harmful can be dead.致命的，致死的。
*The scientists have finally found a cure for this deadly disease.
dead (adv) -極其的。
*The movie is deadly dull.無聊透了。 無聊至極，無聊的要死。
quest -search for, seek for.索求，尋求。 探索。
*The group's quest to find the hidden treasure was interrupted by severe weather .尋求寶藏的隊伍。 。 惡劣的天候。 。 打斷了。 。 。
*The breakup didn't stop Renee's quest for true love.
liquefy (v) - make not liquid turn to liquid.使液化。 "liqu" -液體，
*Turn the heat up to liquefy the jelly.果醬。
liquefaction (n) - 液化。
*Natural gas liquefaction technology has been improved greatly in recent years.
"can't be without it (something ) - something is unnecessary. something is so depend on. couldn't do it without you (something)..
"have never stop to think about something" - slow down and stop the busy doing to think of something.
"as a matter of fact " - very common word, before you try to tell the "true".事實上是。 。 。 。
pasteurization -A chemist name Pasteur who discovered the way by heating up the liquid to kill the bacterial. this process named after Pasteur, the scientist.加熱殺菌法，巴斯德氏病菌接種法。refrigeration - the process and the happen within the refrigerator is called refrigeration.
carton - a paper box or container.用來裝飲料或食物的紙盒。
*There's no space in the refrigerator for this carton of orange juice.
*The boy drank a whole carton of milk the minute he came home.
variation (n) -a kind, not exactly same as the original, some changes have been made.變化體。 "vari" - 字根有“不同”的意思。
*This salad is a variation of a traditional Caesar salad.
*The research showed a wide variation in the performance of rural and suburban kids.
reliance - rely (v)依賴。 something that you depend and rely on, can not without it. 倚靠，依賴。
reliance (on) - reliance on something or someone.對什麼人，事，物的依賴用“ ”。
*Tim is already 30, but his reliance on his parents is still very strong.
* Excessive reliance on exports affected the region's economy.過渡依賴出口。 。 。 影響。 。 該區域的經濟。
indispensable -not able to without it, not able to throw away. similar meaning as "reliance".不可或缺的，絕對必要的。 不能沒有的。
*After years of hard work, Brenda became indispensable to the company.
dispense - throw away, get rid of.
dispensable -able to throw away。 可以丟棄的。
back in - go back to the time which is long long time ago.
argument - to fight with word or reasoning.
cushion - a thing that provide you some space make you fell more comfortable.
chisel - a iron flat, long and thin tool with a sharp edge at one end.
flint - a type of hard stone or rock.
mankind - people.
thanks / thanks to ：
thanks - thank you.謝謝
thanks to = because of.由於，因為i，多虧了。 。 。
Today food is much safer thanks to the process of pasteurization .多虧了巴斯德氏的.加熱殺菌法。 。 。 。
thank you / thank to you - both are different meaning.
thank to you / thanks to you is mean " because of you."在壞的方面有諷刺，嘲諷的意味。
Thanks to you . I had an upset stomach after I drank the coffee you bought me.都是因為你買的咖啡害我。 。 。
No thanks to you . -你沒有功勞。 我不感謝你。
I finally graduated, no thanks to you!我終於畢業了，但是你沒幫我什麼忙。 give it back.
take something for granted.被視為理所當然的。
grant -you get without pay anything. is a gift freely give.給與，授予。
take something for granted -享受一些事物視為理所當然的
take these inventions for granted .-把這些發明視為理所當然的。
take someone for granted. -把一些人對你的好視為理所當然的。 要懂得珍惜某人。 （失去了，就後悔莫及）
Don't take anything for granted. -要懂得感恩，珍惜周邊的人，事，物。
Taking notes of study " Studio Classroom "
※ 作者: ott 時間: 2013-04-15 16:49:44
※ 看板: English 文章推薦值: 1 目前人氣: 0 累積人氣: 401